Journal of Scientific Papers


© CSR, 2008-2019
ISSN 2071-789X

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Strike Plagiarism

  • General Founder and Publisher:

    Centre of Sociological Research


  • Publishing Partners:

    University of Szczecin (Poland)

    Széchenyi István University, (Hungary)

    Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)

    Alexander Dubcek University of Trencín (Slovak Republic)

  • Membership:

    American Sociological Association

    European Sociological Association

    World Economics Association (WEA)




Confident millennials: Differences in consumer confidence across five generations

Vol. 12, No 4, 2019

Kristoffer Persson,


Department of Economics,

School of Economics and Management,

Lund University,

Lund, Sweden,


Confident millennials: Differences in consumer confidence across five generations





Abstract. This paper investigates if individuals experiencing different socio-economic environments during their formative years have different expectations about future economic conditions. We use Swedish survey data to analyse differences in expectations across five generations of consumers by testing if they have different levels of confidence. The paper focuses on all the different generations of the 1900s as defined by Howe and Strauss (1997, 2000). In our econometric model, we use the Millennial Generation as a baseline, as this generation is about to make up the largest fraction of consumers in the economy. Contrary to the theory developed by the literature on generations, such as Howe and Strauss, our results show that confidence increases gradually across generations. We find that the Millennials are more confident than generations born in the first half of the 1900s, but similar in confidence to other generations born in the second half of the 1900s.


Received: January, 2019

1st Revision: September, 2019

Accepted: December, 2019


DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2019/12-4/16

JEL ClassificationD84, Z13, E71

Keywords: generations, socio-economic environment, economic behavior, economic change, Scandinavia