Journal of Scientific Papers


© CSR, 2008-2019
ISSN 2071-789X

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Strike Plagiarism

  • General Founder and Publisher:

    Centre of Sociological Research


  • Publishing Partners:

    University of Szczecin (Poland)

    Széchenyi István University, (Hungary)

    Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)

    Alexander Dubcek University of Trencín (Slovak Republic)

  • Membership:

    American Sociological Association

    European Sociological Association

    World Economics Association (WEA)




Artist, creator, manager, entrepreneur, leader: How society perceive these identities?

Vol. 14, No 2, 2021

Michał Szostak


Department of Management and Security, University of Social Sciences,

Warsaw, Poland


ORCID 0000-0002-7774-2964

Artist, creator, manager, entrepreneur, leader: How society perceive these identities?


Łukasz Sułkowski


Faculty of Management and Social Communication, Jagiellonian University in Cracow,

Cracow, Poland


ORCID 0000-0002-1248-2743



Abstract. Because personal identity is one of the key elements constituting an individual, and perception of different type of identities is a key feature in identity work, we think that the research in the area of perception of artists, creators, managers, entrepreneurs, and leaders should bring important conclusions to the understanding of those identities. We ran a literature review and quantitative research among society representatives (n=160). The main findings of our research show that artists, creators, managers, entrepreneurs, and leaders are perceived differentially by society although we can find areas of similarities and important differences. The hypotheses were confirmed using chi-square test of independence dedicated to small samples which don’t have a normal distribution (p<0.001): H1. Majority of the society does not recognize differences between creativity and artistry; H2. Creativity and entrepreneurship have similar perceptions among society; H3. Leadership and organizing have similar perceptions among society. The results of this research can be used to compare the identity perceived by individuals and the perception of these identities by society.


Received: March, 2020

1st Revision: September, 2020

Accepted: May, 2021


DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-2/11

JEL ClassificationD91, J19, L26, M30, Z11

Keywords: identity, perception, creativity, creativeness, artistry, entrepreneurship, organizing, leadership