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ISSN 2071-789X

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Strike Plagiarism

  • General Founder and Publisher:

    Centre of Sociological Research


  • Publishing Partners:

    University of Szczecin (Poland)

    Széchenyi István University, (Hungary)

    Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)

    Alexander Dubcek University of Trencín (Slovak Republic)

  • Membership:

    American Sociological Association

    European Sociological Association

    World Economics Association (WEA)




Development as happiness: A multidimensional analysis of subjective well-being in Indonesia

Vol. 14, No 2, 2021



Brawijaya University, Indonesia


ORCID 0000-0003-4197-4592

Development as happiness: A multidimensional analysis of subjective well-being in Indonesia




Abstract. Although subjective well-being (SWB) has attracted policy-makers and researchers in the last decades, only a few studies exist on measuring the multidimensional measure of SWB and its determinants in a developing country context. In this study, we examine a multidimensional measure of SWB to identify its demographic and social determinants in Indonesia. A multidimensional measure of SWB was calculated based on the OECD SWB measure. For this analysis, we have used a unique representative national dataset, Indonesia’s Happiness Survey 2017, consisting of 72,317 respondents aged 18 years and older, representing all of the country’s 34 provinces. The results show that disparities in SWB exist across population groups, urban/rural groups, and the residents of various provinces and islands across the country. SWB shows consistent associations with household income, housing conditions, unemployment status, environmental quality, health status, work-life balance, social connectedness, neighborhood trust, personal security and personality. Contrasting relationships were found between SWB and household size, education and residence on certain islands. SWB may capture different information about personal well-being and quality of life than HDI and GDP. Policy makers are expected to monitor social and development progress as well as to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of quality of life in Indonesia.


Received: March, 2020

1st Revision: March, 2021

Accepted: June, 2021


DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-2/15

JEL ClassificationH04, I03, O01

Keywords: development, happiness, subjective well-being (SWB), multidimensional analysis