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  • General Founder and Publisher:

    Centre of Sociological Research


  • Publishing Partners:

    University of Szczecin (Poland)

    Széchenyi István University, (Hungary)

    Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)

    Alexander Dubcek University of Trencín (Slovak Republic)

  • Membership:

    American Sociological Association

    European Sociological Association

    World Economics Association (WEA)




Enriching the socio-economic inequality model by using alternative indices

Vol. 14, No 4, 2021

Sofyan Syahnur*


Universitas Syiah Kuala, 

Banda Aceh, Indonesia


ORCID 0000-0003-3736-7917

*Corresponding author

Enriching the socio-economic inequality model by using alternative indices


Kurt Klaus Frohberg


Institute for Food and Resource Economics, University of Bonn, 

Bonn, Germany 


Doojin Ryu


Sungkyunkwan University,  

Seoul, Republic of Korea, 

E-mail:  ORCID 0000-0002-0059-4887

Yossi Diantimala


Universitas Syiah Kuala, 

Banda Aceh, Indonesia


ORCID 0000-0001-5301-1502 


Abstract. This study aims to investigate regional socio-economic inequality (SEI) using alternative indices. The fruitful indices of the SEI with a different perspective from those found in previous studies are the main contribution to the literature. Afterward, a dynamic spatial panel model (GMM) is used to analyze the effect of human capital, economic growth, and spatial distance for the regions on the SEI. To simplify the ideas, it uses Aceh Province with 23 regencies, as one of the appropriate regions, for this study. Data are obtained from various government sources for the period 2010-2018. The results show that the indices demonstrate the economic strengths and weaknesses, economic capability, environmental input efficiency, and conditional weighted SEI of the regions’ human capital. These indices explain that human capital has a critical role on the effect of natural resources, government income, conflict, and natural disasters on the SEI. Besides, the spatial distance of regions also plays an important role in reducing the SEI of regions. Therefore, the regional development policies should underline the important role of those in supporting the quality of the SEI of the regions. For future research, it suggests involving a spatial distance of regions in determining the SEI of a region.


Received: March, 2021

1st Revision: October, 2021

Accepted: December, 2021


DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2021/14-4/3

JEL ClassificationD63, O21

Keywords: socio-economic inequality, human capital, spatial distance, alternative approach, dynamic spatial panel GMM model, Aceh-Indonesia