Journal of Scientific Papers


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ISSN 2071-789X

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Strike Plagiarism

  • General Founder and Publisher:

    Centre of Sociological Research


  • Publishing Partners:

    University of Szczecin (Poland)

    Széchenyi István University, (Hungary)

    Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)

    Alexander Dubcek University of Trencín (Slovak Republic)

  • Membership:

    American Sociological Association

    European Sociological Association

    World Economics Association (WEA)




Age differences in adaption of persuasion strategies in advertising

Vol. 16, No 3, 2023

Lyubomira Spasova


Department of Social Sciences and Business Language Training,

Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


ORCID 0000-0002-1438-9104


Age differences in adaption of persuasion strategies in advertising




Abstract. This investigation has three aims: (1) to adapt and modify the STPS questionnaire - developed by Kaptein, Markopoulos, Ruyter and Aarts, (2009) as a basic instrument for measuring achieved social influence; (2) to establish susceptibility to Cialdini's persuasion strategies among different age groups; and (3) to determine the advertising effectiveness achieved through advertising messages- based on persuasion principles. The paper used the adapted and modified STPS questionnaire, measured respondents' individual susceptibility to persuasion strategies relative to their age. The results of the univariate analyses of variance show achieved social influence among different age groups in terms of the principles. For respondents aged 46-55, the principle of social proof and commitment and consistency, are relevant; scarcity is significant for 36-45-years old, while authority is dominant for the 56-65 age groups. Positive correlations were found between the persuasion strategies present in advertising: the presence of the reciprocity principle enhanced the influence of the liking and consistency principles to the greatest extent, while the presence of the scarcity principle enhanced the influence of the authority and reciprocity principles. The consumers’ susceptibility to advertising is greatest when consumers’ willingness to purchase is measured against the principle of reciprocity, authority and social proof. On the other hand, offering a stimulus in advertising is most successful when the principles of scarcity, authority, and commitment /consistency are present, and least successful when the principle of liking is present. In older age groups, different consumer sensitivity to persuasion in advertising can be achieved with different combinations of persuasion strategies. These research findings are useful for organizations that offer products and services through advertising.


Received: June, 2021

1st Revision: May, 2022

Accepted: September, 2022


DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2023/16-3/3

JEL ClassificationD20, M31, M37

Keywords: persuasion principles, social influence in advertisements, STPS, advertising in Bulgaria